International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2021, 22(10), 5266
Nanomaterials are proven to affect the biological activity of mammalian and microbial cells profoundly. Despite this fact, only surface chemistry, charge, and area are often linked to these phenomena. Moreover, most attention in this field is directed exclusively at nanomaterial cytotoxicity. At the same time, there is a large body of studies showing the influence of nanomaterials on cellular metabolism, proliferation, differentiation, reprogramming, gene transfer, and many other processes. Furthermore, it has been revealed that in all these cases, the shape of the nanomaterial plays a crucial role. In this paper, the mechanisms of nanomaterials shape control, approaches toward its synthesis, and the influence of nanomaterial shape on various biological activities of mammalian and microbial cells, such as proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism, as well as the prospects of this emerging field, are reviewed.
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