Metal oxide nanoparticles are becoming essential in various biomedical applications, from diagnostics and imaging to anticancer therapy, bacterial infections, wound healing, and others. The application these nanostructures for immunotherapy is also emerging, particularly because they undergo phagocytosis and transmission by macrophages, and exhibit pro- or anti-inflammatory features depending on the nanoparticle’ content and pathological context. However, there is still a number of limitations that have to be addressed before the nanoparticles enter the clinic. First, metal oxide nanoparticle may evoke cytotoxicity in various cell types including immune cells. Second, the immunogenic potential o nanoparticles may affect the immune populations outside the tumours or inflammatory sites. Third, the effects of nanoparticles differ in respect to cell microenvironment and can be hardly predictable and controllable. Nevertheless, most of these limitations can be addressed by combining other approaches such as chemotherapy, antibody-mediated targeted delivery and / or RNA-loaded machines.
Published: January 09, 2020