Mortality and disabilities as outcomes of cardiovascular diseases are primarily related to blood clotting. Optimization of thrombolytic drugs is aimed at the prevention of side effects (in particular, bleeding) associated with a disbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation caused by systemically administered agents. Minimally invasive and efficient approaches to deliver the thrombolytic agent to the site of clot formation are needed. Herein, we report a novel nanocomposite prepared by heparin-mediated cross-linking of urokinase with magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs@uPA). We showed that heparin within the composition evoked no inhibitory effects on urokinase activity. Importantly, the magneto-control further increased the thrombolytic efficacy of the composition. Using our nanocomposition, we demonstrated efficient lysis of experimental clots in vitro and in animal vessels followed by complete restoration of blood flow. No sustained toxicity or hemorrhagic complications were registered in rats and rabbits after single bolus i.v. injection of therapeutic doses of MNPs@uPA. We conclude that MNPs@uPA is a prototype of easy-to-prepare, inexpensive, biocompatible, and noninvasive thrombolytic nanomedicines potentially useful in the treatment of blood clotting.
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