Alumina nanofibers were prepared by sol–gel template method. Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) of feather-like morphology obtained by chemical vapor deposition of C2–C4 hydrocarbons mixture have been used as a template. The distinctive feature of CNF is a friable disordered structure consisting of separate fragments of graphite-like phase. To simplify the sol–gel synthetic procedure, the impact of preparative conditions such as type of precursor and ratio of starting components was studied. CNFs were coated with corresponding alumina precursor and subjected to a high temperature treatment. The resulted alumina nanofibers were explored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), physical nitrogen adsorption (BET), and X-ray diffraction. The optimal Al2O3:CNF ratio was found to be 1:6. According to SEM and BET, surface area of prepared alumina fibers 70–90 nm in diameter lies in a range of 149–174 m2/g. The thermal and strength properties of epoxy composites reinforced with alumina nanofibers are compared. It was demonstrated that used nanofillers affect noticeably the properties of the epoxy matrix.