The unique properties of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles determined their widespread use in medical applications, the food industry, textile industry, which in turn led to environmental pollution. These factors determine the long-term nature of the effect of iron oxide nanoparticles on the body. However, studies in the field of chronic nanotoxicology of magnetic iron particles are insufficient and scattered. Studies show that toxicity may be increased depending on oral and inhalation routes of administration rather than injection. The sensory nerve pathway can produce a number of specific effects not seen with other routes of administration. Organ systems showing potential toxic effects when injected with iron oxide nanoparticles include the nervous system, heart and lungs, the thyroid gland, and organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS). A special place is occupied by the reproductive system and the effect of nanoparticles on the health of the first and second generations of individuals exposed to the toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles. This knowledge should be taken into account for subsequent studies of the toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles. Particular attention should be paid to tests conducted on animals with pathologies representing human chronic socially significant diseases. This part of preclinical studies is almost in its infancy but of great importance for further medical translation on nanomaterials to practice.