Optical bi-enzyme-titania biosensor system: A new way to detect lactose

Authors: Shavronskaya D.Nazarova E.A., Krivoshapkina E.F.


Lactose concentration is a key parameter for assessing the quality of raw and processed milk and identifying abnormal milk. Current methods for lactose determination are laborious, time-consuming and oftentimes require skilled lab workers, expensive equipment, and special reagents. In this study, an optical biosensor system based on nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) is presented for routine measurement of lactose in milk without sample preparation. TiO2 was obtained via sol-gel synthesis and characterized using dynamic light scatteringmicroelectrophoresis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The system, whose colorimetric response was based on the chromogen-free TiO2-based detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), used β-galactosidase and/or glucose oxidase as the biorecognition elements. The selectivity and sensitivity of the biosensors for lactose and glucose was investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using standard aqueous lactose and glucose solutions and whole milk samples. The results showed that the proposed biosensors had high optical signal reproducibility (RSD = 5–6%), high sensitivity (LOD = 0.005 wt%), and high selectivity. The linear dynamic ranges of lactose and glucose detection were from 0.005 wt% to 0.100 wt%, and the optimal response time of the biosensor was 25 min. The listed features and advantages of label-free detection make the biosensor attractive for simple, inexpensive, sensitive, and selective determination of lactose in milk.

Keywords: Biosensor; Lactose; Milk; Glucose oxidase; β-Galactosidase; Titanium dioxide