Frontiers in Chemistry, 2019, Article ASAP
Adjustment of the environmental acidity is a powerful method for fine-tuning the outcome of many chemical processes. Numerous strategies have been developed for the modification of pH in bulk as well as locally. Electrochemical and photochemical processes provide a powerful approach for on-demand generation of ion concentration gradients locally at solid-liquid interfaces. Spatially organized in individual way electrodes provide a particular pattern of proton distribution in solution. It opens perspectives to iontronics which is a bioinspired approach to signaling, information processing and storing by spatial and temporal distribution of ions. We prove here that soft layers allow to control of ion mobility over the surface as well as processes of self-organization are closely related to change in entropy. In this work, we summarize the achievements and discuss perspectives of ion gradients in solution for information processing.
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