For the widespread application of nanotechnology in biomedicine, it is necessary to obtain information about their safety. A critical problem is presented by the host immune responses to nanomaterials. It is assumed that the innate immune system plays a crucial role in the interaction of nanomaterials with the host organism. However, there are only fragmented data on the activation of innate immune system factors, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), by some nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, we investigated TLRs’ activation by clinically relevant and promising NPs, such as Fe3O4, TiO2, ZnO, CuO, Ag2O, and AlOOH. Cytotoxicity and effects on innate immunity factors were studied in THP-1(Tohoku Hospital Pediatrics-1) cell culture. NPs caused an increase of TLR-4 and -6 expression, which was comparable with the LPS-induced level. This suggests that the studied NPs can stimulate the innate immune system response inside the host. The data obtained should be taken into account in future research and to create safe-by-design biomedical nanomaterials.
nanoparticles; toll-like receptors; cytotoxicity
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